Methods of Instruction
for Teaching invariant tasks - Summary
The following are the features we have identified so far to
facilitate memorization. These tactics collectively are referred to as
the "Drill and Practice Model of Instruction."
Selection of subject-matter contentˇdeciding what to teach, based
Routine tacticsˇused always
Enrichment tacticsˇused for difficult content
Motivational tacticsˇused as needed by the learner
If you are not really sure you remember what any of these tactics is
like, go back and review the definition and example. It is important that
you understand all of them before you proceed.
Of all the tactics you have learned about in this lesson, mnemonics,
feedback, and games are probably the only ones you would have difficulty
designing. Therefore, the Skill Builder (to be developed still) will provide
a few examples and some practice exercises to help you. The following is
a brief summary for these three tactics.
Mnemonics which add meaning
By tying items together:
First letter mnemonics:
- to make a word or acronym."K-CAASE" to remember Bloom's
types of learning: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis,
"ROY G. BIV" to remember the order of the colors in the rainbow:
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet.
- to make a phrase or sentence.
"My Very Earnest Mother Just Served Us Nine Pickles" to remember
the order of the planets from the sun:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
By associating with something you know:
Ideas or "tricks"
Mnemonics which add pattern:
A song mnemonic
To remember that Augusta is the capital of Maine, think of
how everyone likes to go to Maine for vacations in August.
Visuals or images
To remember the mnemonic, K-CAASE, think of a case that is
so full of K's that it is stretched, hence the AA instead of just A.
To remember "My Very Earnest Mother . . . ", provide a picture of a
mother earnestly serving nine kids one pickle each.
A rhyme mnemonic
The alphabet song.
I before e, except after c,
or when it says "aye", as in neighbor or rein.
For correct response:
For wrong response:
Confirmation. No correction will often be sufficient
After correct response:
Correction. Provide the correct answer immediately.
After wrong response:
Praiseor Increase in Score
The following are some of the features a good drill-and-practice game
I. Create a scenario.
Allow learner to determine length of play.
Think in terms of different levels of difficulty/achievement.
Think in terms of different speeds of response.
C. Learner's role
II. Design a score-keeping mechanism.
A. Allow learner to compete against self (beat previous best
III. Design the introduction.
A. Establish rapport between the player and the computer.
B. Design the instructions for the game.
Give the computer a name.
Present the computer as a partner.
Obtain and use the player's name in communications.
C. Design the presentation of scoring information.
Allow player to skip the instructions.
Present the object of the game (goal and situation).
Present the rules of the game.