Module 2: Invariant Tasks 


Basic Methods of Instruction

1.Kinds of Learning
2.Invariant Tasks
3.Concept Classification
4.Procedure Using
5.Principle Using
7.Generic Skills

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Principles for Teaching invariant tasks - Summary
The following are the features we have identified so far to facilitate memorization. These tactics collectively are referred to as the "Drill and Practice Model of Instruction."

Selection of subject-matter contentˇdeciding what to teach, based on needs

Routine tacticsˇused always

  • Presentation
  • Practice
  • Feedback
Enrichment tacticsˇused for difficult content
  • Chunking
  • Repetition
  • Mnemonic
  • Prompting
Motivational tacticsˇused as needed by the learner
  • Confidence
  • Satisfaction
Reviewˇused always

If you are not really sure you remember what any of these tactics is like, go back and review the definition and example. It is important that you understand all of them before you proceed.

Of all the tactics you have learned about in this lesson, mnemonics, feedback, and games are probably the only ones you would have difficulty designing. Therefore, the Skill Builder (to be developed still) will provide a few examples and some practice exercises to help you. The following is a brief summary for these three tactics.


Mnemonics which add meaning

  • By tying items together:

  • First letter mnemonics:
    - to make a word or acronym."K-CAASE" to remember Bloom's types of learning: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.
    "ROY G. BIV" to remember the order of the colors in the rainbow: 
    Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet. 
    - to make a phrase or sentence.
    "My Very Earnest Mother Just Served Us Nine Pickles" to remember the order of the planets from the sun:
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
    • By associating with something you know:

    • Ideas or "tricks"
    To remember that Augusta is the capital of Maine, think of how everyone likes to go to Maine for vacations in August.
    Visuals or images
    To remember the mnemonic, K-CAASE, think of a case that is so full of K's that it is stretched, hence the AA instead of just A.
    To remember "My Very Earnest Mother . . . ", provide a picture of a mother earnestly serving nine kids one pickle each.
    Mnemonics which add pattern:  
  • A song mnemonic
  • The alphabet song.
  • A rhyme mnemonic
  • I before e, except after c, 
    or when it says "aye", as in neighbor or rein.

    Informational feedback: 

  • For correct response: 
  • Confirmation. No correction will often be sufficient confirmation.
  • For wrong response: 
  • Correction. Provide the correct answer immediately.
    Motivational feedback: 
  • After correct response:
  • Praiseor Increase in Score
  • After wrong response:
  • Encouragement

    The following are some of the features a good drill-and-practice game should have:

    I. Create a scenario.

    A. Situation 
    1. Allow learner to determine length of play.
    B. Goal 
    1. Think in terms of different levels of difficulty/achievement.
    2. Think in terms of different speeds of response.
    C. Learner's role
    II. Design a score-keeping mechanism.
    A. Allow learner to compete against self (beat previous best score).
    III. Design the introduction.
    A. Establish rapport between the player and the computer. 
    1. Give the computer a name.
    2. Present the computer as a partner.
    3. Obtain and use the player's name in communications.
    B. Design the instructions for the game. 
    1. Allow player to skip the instructions.
    2. Present the object of the game (goal and situation).
    3. Present the rules of the game.
    C. Design the presentation of scoring information.

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    This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
    Copyright 1999, Charles M. ReigeluthCredit