Module 2: Invariant Tasks 


Basic Methods of Instruction

1.Kinds of Learning
2.Invariant Tasks
3.Concept Classification
4.Procedure Using
5.Principle Using
7.Generic Skills

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References and Resources

Ausubel, D.P. (1968). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. See also, Ausubel, D.P., Hanesian, & Novak, (1978) Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 

Bloom, B.S. (1976). Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Gagné, R.M. (1985). The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 

Kaufman, R. (1979). Needs Assessment: Concept and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. 

Keller, J. (October 1987). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance and Instruction, 1-7. 

Kulhavy, R. (1977). Feedback in written instruction. Review of Educational Research, 47, 211-232. 

Miller, G. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity to process information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97. 

Thorndike, E.M. (1913). Educational Psychology. Volume II. The Psychology of Learning. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. 


To acquire skills in designing memorization-level instruction:

Reigeluth, C.M. Memorization. An interactive lesson under development for this site. 

To see an example of a computer-based lesson for a memorization task, look at:

Siegel, M., et al Bones?Learn the Bones of the Body. Novanet. 

To learn more about the drill-and-practice model of instruction, especially as it applies to computer-based instruction:

Salisbury, D.F. Cognitive psychology and its implications for designing drill and practice programs for computers. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 17(1), 23-30.

(to Module 3)

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This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
Copyright 1999, Charles M. Reigeluth Credit