Module 4: Procedure Using 


Basic Methods of Instruction

1.Kinds of Learning
2.Invariant Tasks
3.Concept Classification
4.Procedure Using
5.Principle Using
7.Generic Skills

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What is a procedural task?
    You have been given an assignment that entails teaching a procedural task. A procedural task involves performing a procedure, which is a sequence of activities to achieve a goal. Synonyms include method, technique, skill, and rule (sometimes). A procedure can be either of two types: 
    • A physical procedure, which entails the execution of physical movements, like performing a serve in tennis. 
    • A mental procedure, which entails the execution of mental operations, like adding two numbers in your head. 

    Actually, most procedures are a combination of physical and mental activities. A case in point is the procedure for writing an essay. But usually only one of the two kinds of activities needs to be taught—the other has already been mastered. In this case, we assume the physical activity of writing has already been mastered. 

      Procedures are invented, but the fact that they work or don't work can be explained by principles (although the principles may not have been discovered yet). A person can learn to perform a procedure without understanding why it works. For example, one can learn how to calculate force using the formula F=Ma (Force equals Mass times acceleration) without understanding anything about force or mass or acceleration (which are all concepts) or about the causal interrelationships among them (which are principles), such as: an increase in acceleration will cause an increase in force. So procedures can be learned rotely at the application level.

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This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
Copyright 1999, Charles M. ReigeluthCredit