Module 4: Procedure Using
Basic Methods of Instruction
1.Kinds of Learning
sample procedure lesson [Adapted from a
lesson by Jeanne Buckley]
[Learning Station #11 contains three multimedia video segments that the learners can manipulate (freeze frame, slow motion, reverse motion, etc.). The first video segment shows a woman performing each step in order and explaining what she is doing as she proceeds. The performance of each step is preceded by a title page, which is held on the screen for about 3 seconds before the step is demonstrated and explained. The following are the titles and statements provided for each step:
1. Determine development time.
Determine the correct development time from the wall chart in your darkroom (zoom in). You need a chart because the best development time varies depending on the film speed and developer temperature (partially darken screen except for the corresponding parts of the chart). You will find a similar chart in Appendix A of your Packet (pan back out to woman).
This step is important because proper development time is essential for creating a good negative. Otherwise your negative will be too dark or too light and won't have good contrast.
Our film is ASA 125 film speed (zoom in as she holds it up and shows the speed), and our developer is stored at 70 degrees, so we find the development time like this (demonstrates on the wall chart).
2. Put your film in the developing tank.
With the lights out, roll the film onto a spool (demonstrates in a close-up shot with a metal spool for 35 mm film, 36 exposures), place it in a developing tank (demonstrates in a close-up with a metal tank of the same size), and close the lid tightly (demonstrates). You may now turn the lights back on (demonstrates).
3. Add the developer.
Find the developer (demonstrates with Kodak type X), pour it into the developing tank (demonstrates close-up), and leave it for the determined time, two minutes and fifteen seconds (fades to clock ticking out the last five seconds).
4. Remove the developer.
After the determined time, remove the developer by pouring it down the darkroom sink (demonstrates).
5. Add the stop bath.
Find the stop bath (demonstrates with Kodak type Y), pour it into the tank (demonstrates close-up), and leave it for at least one minute (fades to clock ticking out the last five seconds).
6. Remove the stop bath.
Now we pour the stop bath back into its container, for it can be used again (demonstrates close-up).
7. Add the fixer.
Find the fixer (demonstrates with Kodak type Z), pour it into the tank (demonstrates close-up), and leave it for at least four minutes, but no longer than six minutes (fades to clock ticking out the last five seconds).
8. Remove the fixer.
Now we pour the fixer back into its container, for it can also be used again (demonstrates close-up).
9. Rinse with water.
Next, we remove the top of the developing tank (demonstrates close-up) and run water into the tank for at least 15 minutes (fades to clock ticking out the last five seconds).
10. Hang up to dry.
Finally, we hang the film up to dry (demonstrates). Be careful that the clamp does not touch a negative (shows close-up). (Zoom out to woman.) Let's have a few more demonstrations before you do it yourself. Try to remember the order of all the steps as you watch.
The two remaining demonstrations are given in the same way in different darkrooms with different kinds of film (speed and number of exposures), different temperatures of chemicals, different kinds of developing tanks, and different brands (containers) of chemicals. I would expect you to tell me exactly which ones for each example in your lesson. Less narrative will be provided in each subsequent demo, but the names of the steps and the amount of time to wait for each will always be included.
We could have used live demos or even paper-based "demos" with pictures
as alternative representations. Would that have been good? Is there some
other form of alternative representation?]
[Learning Station #3 contains some multimedia video simulations for the learner to practice the procedure without taking the time and expense to develop real film. The multimedia program is designed in such a way that, at key decision points in the performance of the procedure, a question screen comes up and asks the student to make a decision about the kind of chemical to use at that particular point, or the length of time the specific chemical needs to be used. Feedback is given after each decision is made.
When a correct decision is made, a computer screen comes up which contains a likeness of a print of a famous photographer (Ansel Adams, Alfred Stieglitz, Margaret Cameron, etc.), and the words under it read: "Congratulations, you have taken one step closer to becoming a student of Ansel Adams (Alfred Stieglitz, etc.)! Please continue developing your film."
If the student makes a wrong choice, he or she will see a screen which will indicate the error. For example: "Oooops!!! Because you added developer now instead of fixer, the image on your film will not last more than one week!" or "Because you didn't develop your film for the necessary time, the image will be very faint, and the negative will not be printable." Then the student can make a decision to either repeat just the part of the procedure he or she missed, or go back to the beginning of the procedure.
As an added incentive, students will be timed on their performance, and they can compare their scores to their earlier scores or to top students' scores at the end.
Three cases will be used in these simulations. They will be in different darkrooms with different kinds of film (speed and number of exposures), different temperatures of chemicals, different kinds of developing tanks, and different brands (containers) of chemicals. I would expect you to tell me exactly which ones for each practice case in your lesson.]
[Again, I would expect you to indicate the kinds of film (speed and number of exposures), different temperatures of chemicals, different kinds of developing tanks, and different brands (containers) of chemicals so I can judge your ability to create divergent instances.]
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This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
Copyright 1999, Charles M. ReigeluthCredit