Methods of Instruction
is Principle Using?
A principle is a relationship between two or more changes, like
"water expands when it freezes". There are two major kinds of principles:
process and causal.
First, we will discuss process principles. Then we will deal with causal
A process principle is a sequence of natural events.
Example: "A seed grows into a seedling, which grows into a mature
plant, which develops a flower, which produces seeds, and the cycle continues."
Contrasted with procedures: A sequence of natural events is not
a sequence of actions performed by a person, which is a procedure rather
than a principle.
Kinds: A process principle may be linear (with a beginning
and an end) or cyclical (with no beginning or end).
A causal principle is a cause-effect relationship between two or
Example: "An increase in the price of a good causes a decrease in
the amount demanded and an increase in the amount supplied".
Contrasted with process principles: In process principles you can't
say that one change causes the other.
Kinds: Causal principles usually have multiple causes and/or multiple