Module 5: Principle Using 


Basic Methods of Instruction

1.Kinds of Learning
2.Invariant Tasks
3.Concept Classification
4.Procedure Using
5.Principle Using
7.Generic Skills

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What is Principle Using?

A principle is a relationship between two or more changes, like "water expands when it freezes". There are two major kinds of principles: process and causal.

  1. A process principle is a sequence of natural events.
    1. Example: "A seed grows into a seedling, which grows into a mature plant, which develops a flower, which produces seeds, and the cycle continues." 
    2. Contrasted with procedures: A sequence of natural events is not a sequence of actions performed by a person, which is a procedure rather than a principle. 
    3. Kinds: A process principle may be linear (with a beginning and an end) or cyclical (with no beginning or end).
  2. A causal principle is a cause-effect relationship between two or more changes.
    1. Example: "An increase in the price of a good causes a decrease in the amount demanded and an increase in the amount supplied". 
    2. Contrasted with process principles: In process principles you can't say that one change causes the other. 
    3. Kinds: Causal principles usually have multiple causes and/or multiple effects.
First, we will discuss process principles. Then we will deal with causal principles.

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This file was last updated on March 10, 1999 by Byungro Lim
Copyright 1999, Charles M. ReigeluthCredit